Master Circular – Prudential norms on Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning pertaining to Advances

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Master Circular – Prudential norms on Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning pertaining to Advances

Reserve Bank of India 

RBI/2022-23/15
 DOR.STR.REC.4/21.04.048/2022-23
April 1, 2022
All Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs) 
Madam/Dear Sir
Master Circular – Prudential norms on Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning pertaining to Advances
Please refer to the Master Circular DOR.No.STR.REC.55/21.04.048/2021-22 dated October 1,  2021 consolidating instructions / guidelines issued to banks till September 30, 2021 on matters relating to prudential norms on income recognition, asset classification and provisioning pertaining to advances.
2. This Master Circular consolidates instructions on the above matters issued up to March 31, 2022. A list of circulars consolidated in this Master Circular is contained in Annex 5.
Yours faithfully
(Manoranjan Mishra)
Chief General Manager
Encl.: As above      
 Master Circular – Prudential Norms on Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning pertaining to Advances
Part A
1. GENERAL
1.1  In line with the international practices and as per the recommendations made by the Committee on the Financial System (Chairman Shri M. Narasimham), the Reserve Bank of India has introduced, in a phased manner, prudential norms for income recognition, asset classification and provisioning for the advances portfolio of the banks so as to move towards greater consistency and transparency in the published accounts.
1.2 The policy of income recognition should be objective and based on record of recovery rather than on any subjective considerations. Likewise, the classification of assets of banks has to be done on the basis of objective criteria which would ensure a uniform and consistent application of the norms. Also, the provisioning should be made on the basis of the classification of assets based on the period for which the asset has remained non-performing and the availability of security and the realisable value thereof.    Learn more volume is gedempt Report this ad
1.3 Banks are urged to ensure that while granting loans and advances, realistic repayment schedules may be fixed on the basis of cash flows with borrowers. This would go a long way to facilitate prompt repayment by the borrowers and thus improve the record of recovery in advances.
2. DEFINITIONS
2.1 Non-performing Assets 2.1.1 An asset, including a leased asset, becomes non-performing when it ceases to generate income for the bank.
2.1.2 A non-performing asset (NPA) is a loan or an advance where; i. interest and/ or instalment of principal remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of a term loan,
ii. the account remains ‘out of order’ as indicated at paragraph  2.2 below, in respect of an Overdraft/Cash Credit (OD/CC),
 iii. the bill remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in the case of bills purchased and discounted,
iv. the instalment of principal or interest thereon remains overdue for two crop seasons for short duration crops,
v. the instalment of principal or interest thereon remains overdue for one crop season for long duration crops,
vi. the amount of liquidity facility remains outstanding for more than 90 days, in respect of a securitisation transaction undertaken in terms of the Reserve Bank of India (Securitisation of Standard Assets) Directions, 2021.
vii. in respect of derivative transactions, the overdue receivables representing positive mark-to-market value of a derivative contract, if these remain unpaid for a period of 90 days from the specified due date for payment.
2.1.3 In addition, an account may also be classified as NPA in terms of certain specific provisions of this Master Circular, including inter alia Paragraphs 4.2.4, 4.2.9 and Part B2.
2.2 ‘Out of Order’ status
2.2.1 A CC/OD account shall be treated as ‘out of order’ if:
i) The outstanding balance in the CC/OD account remains continuously in excess of the sanctioned limit/drawing power for 90 days, or
ii) The outstanding balance in the CC/OD account is less than the sanctioned limit/drawing power but there are no credits continuously for 90 days, or the outstanding balance in the CC/OD account is less than the sanctioned limit/drawing power but credits are not enough to cover the interest debited during the previous 90 days period1. 2.2.2 The definition of “out of order” as at paragraph
2.2.1 above shall be applicable to all loan products being offered as an overdraft facility, including those not meant for business purpose and/or which entail interest repayments as the only credits.
2.3 ‘Overdue’ status
2.3.1 Any amount due to the bank under any credit facility is ‘overdue’ if it is not paid on the due date fixed by the bank. The borrower accounts shall be flagged as overdue by the banks as part of their day-end processes for the due date, irrespective of the time of running such processes.
3. INCOME RECOGNITION 3.1 Income Recognition Policy
3.1.1 The policy of income recognition has to be objective and based on the record of recovery. Therefore, the banks should not charge and take to income account interest on any NPA. This will apply to Government guaranteed accounts also.
3.1.2 However, interest on advances against Term Deposits, National Savings Certificates (NSCs), Kisan Vikas Patras (KVPs) and life insurance policies may be taken to income account on the due date, provided adequate margin is available in the accounts.
3.1.3 Fees and commissions earned by the banks as a result of renegotiations or rescheduling of outstanding debts should be recognised on an accrual basis over the period of time covered by the renegotiated or rescheduled extension of credit.
3.1.4 In cases of loans where moratorium has been granted for repayment of interest, income may be recognisd on accrual basis for accounts which continue to be classified as ‘standard’. This shall be evaluated against the definition of ‘restructuring’ provided in paragraph 16 of this Master Circular.
3.1.5 Income recognition norms for loans towards projects under implementation involving deferment of DCCO shall be subject to the instructions contained in paragraph 4.2.15 of this Master Circular and that for loans against gold ornaments and jewellery for non-agricultural purposes shall be subject to the instructions contained in circular DBOD.No.BP.BC.27/21.04.048/2014-15 dated July 22, 2014 on the subject, as updated from time to time.
3.2 Reversal of income
3.2.1 If any advance, including bills purchased and discounted, becomes NPA, the entire interest accrued and credited to income account in the past periods, should be reversed if the same is not realised. This will apply to Government guaranteed accounts also.
3.2.2 If loans with moratorium on payment of interest (permitted at the time of sanction of the loan) become NPA after the moratorium period is over, the capitalized interest, if any, corresponding to the interest accrued during such moratorium period need not be reversed.
3.2.3 In respect of NPAs, fees, commission and similar income that have accrued should cease to accrue in the current period and should be reversed with respect to past periods, if uncollected.
3.2.4 Leased Assets – The finance charge component of finance income [as defined in ‘AS 19 Leases’)] on the leased asset which has accrued and was credited to income account before the asset became non-performing, and remaining unrealised, should be reversed or provided for in the current accounting period.
3.3 Appropriation of recovery in NPAs
3.3.1 Interest realised on NPAs may be taken to income account provided the credits in the accounts towards interest are not out of fresh/ additional credit facilities sanctioned to the borrower concerned.
3.3.2 In the absence of a clear agreement between the bank and the borrower for the purpose of appropriation of recoveries in NPAs (i.e. towards principal or interest due), banks should adopt an accounting principle and exercise the right of appropriation of recoveries in a uniform and consistent manner.
3.4 Interest Application
On an account turning NPA, banks should reverse the interest already charged and not collected by debiting Profit and Loss account and stop further application of interest. However, banks may continue to record such accrued interest in a Memorandum account in their books. For the purpose of computing Gross Advances, interest recorded in the Memorandum account should not be taken into account.
3.5 Computation of NPA levels
Banks are advised to compute their Gross Advances, Net Advances, Gross NPAs and Net NPAs, as per the format in Annex -1.
ASSET CLASSIFICATION
4.1 Categories of NPAs Banks are required to classify non-performing assets further into the following three categories based on the period for which the asset has remained non-performing and the realisability of the dues:
(i) Substandard Assets
(ii) Doubtful Assets
(iii) Loss Assets
4.1.1 Substandard Assets
With effect from March 31, 2005, a substandard asset would be one, which has remained NPA for a period less than or equal to 12 months. Such an asset will have well defined credit weaknesses that jeopardise the liquidation of the debt and are characterised by the distinct possibility that the banks will sustain some loss, if deficiencies are not corrected.
4.1.2 Doubtful Assets
With effect from March 31, 2005, an asset would be classified as doubtful if it has remained in the substandard category for a period of 12 months. A loan classified as doubtful has all the weaknesses inherent in assets that were classified as substandard, with the added characteristic that the weaknesses make collection or liquidation in full, – on the basis of currently known facts, conditions and values – highly questionable and improbable. 4.1.3 Loss Assets
A loss asset is one where loss has been identified by the bank or internal or external auditors or the RBI inspection, but the amount has not been written off wholly. In other words, such an asset is considered uncollectible and of such little value that its continuance as a bankable asset is not warranted although there may be some salvage or recovery value.
4.2 Guidelines for classification of assets
4.2.1 General Broadly speaking, classification of assets into above categories should be done taking into account the degree of well-defined credit weaknesses.
4.2.2 Appropriate internal systems for proper and timely identification of NPAs Banks should establish appropriate internal systems (including technology enabled processes) for proper and timely identification of NPAs, including putting in place the necessary infrastructure to comply with the requirements of the circular DoS.CO.PPG./SEC.03/11.01.005/2020-21 dated September 14, 2020 on Automation of Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning processes in banks (as updated).
4.2.3 Availability of security / net worth of borrower/ guarantor The availability of security or net worth of borrower/ guarantor should not be taken into account for the purpose of treating an advance as NPA or otherwise, except to the extent provided in Paragraph 4.2.9.
4.2.4 Accounts with temporary deficiencies
The classification of an asset as NPA should be based on the record of recovery. Bank should not classify an advance account as NPA merely due to the existence of some deficiencies which are temporary in nature such as non-availability of adequate drawing power based on the latest available stock statement, balance outstanding exceeding the limit temporarily, non-submission of stock statements and non-renewal of the limits on the due date, etc. In the matter of classification of accounts with such deficiencies banks may follow the following guidelines:
a) Banks should ensure that drawings in the working capital accounts are covered by the adequacy of current assets, since current assets are first appropriated in times of distress. Drawing power is required to be arrived at based on the stock statement which is current. However, considering the difficulties of large borrowers, stock statements relied upon by the banks for determining drawing power should not be older than three months. The outstanding in the account based on drawing power calculated from stock statements older than three months, would be deemed as irregular.
b) A working capital borrowal account will become NPA if such irregular drawings are permitted in the account for a continuous period of 90 days even though the unit may be working or the borrower’s financial position is satisfactory.
c) Regular and ad hoc credit limits need to be reviewed/ regularised not later than three months from the due date/date of ad hoc sanction. In case of constraints such as non-availability of financial statements and other data from the borrowers, the branch should furnish evidence to show that renewal/ review of credit limits is already on and would be completed soon. In any case, delay beyond six months is not considered desirable as a general discipline. Hence, an account where the regular/ ad hoc credit limits have not been reviewed/ renewed within 180 days from the due date/ date of ad hoc sanction will be treated as NPA.
4.2.5 Upgradation of loan accounts classified as NPAs
The loan accounts classified as NPAs may be upgraded as ‘standard’ asset only if entire arrears of interest and principal are paid by the borrower. In case of borrowers having more than one credit facility from a bank, loan accounts shall be upgraded from NPA to standard asset category only upon repayment of entire arrears of interest and principal pertaining to all the credit facilities. With regard to upgradation of accounts classified as NPA due to restructuring, non-achievement of date of commencement of commercial operations (DCCO), etc., the instructions as specified for such cases shall continue to be applicable.

 

 

Master Circular – Prudential norms on Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning pertaining to Advances

 

 

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