PURCHASING ASSETS BELOW FAIR MARKET VALUE ATTRACTS TAX

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PURCHASING ASSETS BELOW FAIR MARKET VALUE ATTRACTS TAX

FAIR MARKET VALUE

Sec 56(2)(X)

Finance Act 2017 has inserted a new clause (x) in section 56(2) w.e.f 1st April 2017 (i.e. applicable from AY 2018-19 related to FY 2017-18) which has considerably widened the scope of provisions taxing deemed gift as income. The applicability of old deemed gift clauses being section 56(2)(vii) and 56(2)(viia) has been restricted upto AY 2017-18 only. New section 56(2)(x) is much wider in its application as compared to erstwhile provision u/s 56(2)(vii).

Let us know about both the provision in detail.

Sec-56(2)(Vii): Provision

Where an individual or HUF receives in any previous year, from any person or persons-

  1. Any sum of money, without consideration, the aggregate value of which exceeds Rs. 50,000/-, the whole of the aggregate value is taxable.
  2. Any immovable property without consideration, the stamp duty value of which exceeds Rs. 50,000/- it is taxable. However if consideration received is less than the stamp duty value of the property and difference is more than Rs.50,000/- then such difference is taxable.
  3. Any property other than immovable property-without consideration, the aggregate fair market value of which exceeds Rs. 50,000/-, the whole of the aggregate fair market value is taxable. However, if consideration received is less than the aggregate fair market value of the property and difference is more than Rs.50,000/- then such difference is taxable.
The old provision is applicable to some person being individual & HUF and not all the person. New provision, which is almost same as the old one is made applicable to all the persons. Now, company, firm, society, AOP, LLP etc will be covered by the new provision. It means that purchase of any property below its Fair Market Value or stamp duty valuation will be subject to tax in the hands of the buyer.
The relevant part of section 56(2)(vii) of the Income Tax Act-1961 is reproduced hereunder:

(vii) where an individual or a Hindu undivided family receives, in any previous year, from any person or persons on or after the 1st day of October, 2009 84[but before the 1st day of April, 2017],—

 (a)  any sum of money, without consideration, the aggregate value of which exceeds fifty thousand rupees, the whole of the aggregate value of such sum;

 (b)  any immovable property,—

 (i)  without consideration, the stamp duty value of which exceeds fifty thousand rupees, the stamp duty value of such property;

(ii)  for a consideration which is less than the stamp duty value of the property by an amount exceeding fifty thousand rupees, the stamp duty value of such property as exceeds such consideration:

Provided that where the date of the agreement fixing the amount of consideration for the transfer of immovable property and the date of registration are not the same, the stamp duty value on the date of the agreement may be taken for the purposes of this sub-clause:

Provided further that the said proviso shall apply only in a case where the amount of consideration referred to therein, or a part thereof, has been paid by any mode other than cash on or before the date of the agreement for the transfer of such immovable property;

 (c)  any property, other than immovable property,—

 (i)  without consideration, the aggregate fair market value of which exceeds fifty thousand rupees, the whole of the aggregate fair market value of such property;

(ii)  for a consideration which is less than the aggregate fair market value of the property by an amount exceeding fifty thousand rupees, the aggregate fair market value of such property as exceeds such consideration :

Provided that where the stamp duty value of immovable property as referred to in sub-clause (b) is disputed by the assessee on grounds mentioned in sub-section (2) of section 50C, the Assessing Officer may refer the valuation of such property to a Valuation Officer, and the provisions of section 50C and sub-section (15) of section 155 shall, as far as may be, apply in relation to the stamp duty value of such property for the purpose of sub-clause (b) as they apply for valuation of capital asset under those sections :

Provided further that this clause shall not apply to any sum of money or any property received—

 (a)  from any relative; or

 (b)  on the occasion of the marriage of the individual; or

 (c)  under a will or by way of inheritance; or

 (d)  in contemplation of death of the payer or donor, as the case may be; or

 (e)  from any local authority as defined in the Explanation to clause (20) of section 10; or

 (f)  from any fund or foundation or university or other educational institution or hospital or other medical institution or any trust or institution referred to in clause (23C) of section 10; or

 (g)  from any trust or institution registered under section 12AA; 85[or]

85[(h) by way of transaction not regarded as transfer under clause (vicb) or clause (vid) or clause (vii) of section 47.]

Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause,—

(a)  “assessable” shall have the meaning assigned to it in the Explanation 2 to sub-section (2) of section 50C;

(b)  “fair market value” of a property, other than an immovable property, means the value determined in accordance with the method as may be prescribed86;

(c)  “jewellery” shall have the meaning assigned to it in the Explanation to sub-clause (ii) of clause (14) of section 2;

(d)  “Property” means the following capital asset of the assessee, namely:—

 (i)  Immovable property being land or building or both;

(ii)  Shares and securities;

(iii) jewellery;

(iv) archaeological collections;

(v)  drawings;

(vi) paintings;

(vii) sculptures;

(viii) any work of art; or

(ix) bullion;

(e)  “Relative” means,—

 (i)  in case of an individual—

(A)  spouse of the individual;

(B)  brother or sister of the individual;

(C)  brother or sister of the spouse of the individual;

(D) brother or sister of either of the parents of the individual;

(E) any lineal ascendant or descendant of the individual;

(F) any lineal ascendant or descendant of the spouse of the individual;

(G) spouse of the person referred to in items (B) to (F); and

(ii)  in case of a Hindu undivided family, any member thereof;

(f)  “stamp duty value” means the value adopted or assessed or assessable by any authority of the Central Government or a State Government for the purpose of payment of stamp duty in respect of an immovable property;

The relevant part of section 56(2)(x) of the Income Tax Act-1961 is reproduced here-under:

[(x) where any person receives, in any previous year, from any person or persons on or after the 1st day of April, 2017,—

 (a)  any sum of money, without consideration, the aggregate value of which exceeds fifty thousand rupees, the whole of the aggregate value of such sum;

 (b)  any immovable property,—

(A)  without consideration, the stamp duty value of which exceeds fifty thousand rupees, the stamp duty value of such property;

(B)  for a consideration which is less than the stamp duty value of the property by an amount exceeding fifty thousand rupees, the stamp duty value of such property as exceeds such consideration:

 The Provided that where the date of agreement fixing the amount of consideration for the transfer of immovable property and the date of registration are not the same, the stamp duty value on the date of agreement may be taken for the purposes of this sub-clause :

Also Provided further that the provisions of the first proviso shall apply only in a case where the amount of consideration referred to therein, or a part thereof, has been paid by way of an account payee cheque or an account payee bank draft or by use of electronic clearing system through a bank account, on or before the date of agreement for transfer of such immovable property:
Provided also that where the stamp duty value of immovable property is disputed by the assessee on grounds mentioned in sub-section (2) of section 50C, the Assessing Officer may refer the valuation of such property to a Valuation Officer, and the provisions of section 50C and sub-section (15) of section 155 shall, as far as may be, apply in relation to the stamp duty value of such property for the purpose of this sub-clause as they apply for valuation of capital asset under those sections;

 (c)  any property, other than immovable property,—

(A) without consideration, the aggregate fair market value of which exceeds fifty thousand rupees, the whole of the aggregate fair market value of such property;

(B) for a consideration which is less than the aggregate fair market value of the property by an amount exceeding fifty thousand rupees, the aggregate fair market value of such property as exceeds such consideration :

Provided that this clause shall not apply to any sum of money or any property received—

 (I)  from any relative; or

(II)  on the occasion of the marriage of the individual; or

(III) under a will or by way of inheritance; or

(IV) in contemplation of death of the payer or donor, as the case may be; or

(V) from any local authority as defined in the Explanation to clause (20) of section 10; or

(VI) from any fund or foundation or university or other educational institution or hospital or other medical institution or any trust or institution referred to in clause (23C) of section 10; or

(VII) from or by any trust or institution registered under section 12A or section 12AA; or

(VIII) by any fund or trust or institution or any university or other educational institution or any hospital or other medical institution referred to in sub-clause (iv) or sub-clause (v) or sub-clause (vi) or sub-clause (via) of clause (23C) of section 10; or

(IX) by way of transaction not regarded as transfer under clause (i) or clause (vi) or clause (via) or clause (viaa) or clause (vib) or clause (vic) or clause (vica) or clause (vicb) or clause (vid) or clause (vii) of section 47; or

(X) from an individual by a trust created or established solely for the benefit of relative of the individual.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause, the expressions “assessable”, “fair market value”, “jewellery”, “property”, “relative” and “stamp duty value” shall have the same meanings respectively assigned to them in the Explanation to clause (vii).]

Above tax provision has wider implication and would affect almost every citizens of the country. Day by day, Income tax Act is incorporating the provision to tax fictitious income and the net is getting widened after every amendment.

FAIR MARKET VALUE


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